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Habesha

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Habesha is a term of pride and used to eliminate the distinction between different tribes and celebrate unity as people of the same region. For example : You ask "Are you habesha?

Oct 3 Word of the Day. Thoughts and prayers. Frenemy has a family tragedy. Habesha is a word used to refer to both Eritreans and Ethiopians, or, more specifically, to the Semitic-speaking inhabitants of those countries.

The first inscription to refer to "Habesha" is a Sabaean South Arabian inscription ca. The term was translated by the famous Christian King Ezana of Aksum in the mid 4th century as "Ethiopia" in Greek, which previously referred to Africa south of Egypt in general, or Nubia in modern-day Sudan in particular.

The term is not, as commonly assumed, of Arabic origin, but of local Semitic origin. Spurious Arabic etymologies tend to connect the term with the meaning "mixed," on the false assumption that the peoples of the Horn of Africa are the product of African-Arab mixes.

The term was also used by the Turks as "Habesh" or "Habeshistan" to refer to their small territory taken from Ethiopia in , comprising of the port cities of Massawa and Hergigo Habeshistan also included Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, the capital of the province, Suwakin in Sudan, and Aden in Yemen.

Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and Himyar had called in the help of the clans of Habashat for war against the kings of Saba.

Amharic: Are you habesha? Eritrean or Ethiopian. Habesha is a tribe that's divided into 5 languages which are not mutually intellgible.

Contrary to popular belief, the Habesha are not a "mixed" people or descendents of Sabeean migration to the Horn of Africa. This outrageous theory was first spread by European "historians" in the 16th century who have done minimal research in order to maintan the Eurocentric view of the world at that meaning, Africans could not be capable of great accomplishments or glorious history.

Are you Habesha? How about you? Within Ethiopian and Eritrean diasporic populations, some second generation immigrants have adopted the term "Habesha" in a broader sense as a supra-national ethnic identifier inclusive of all Eritreans and Ethiopians.

For those who employ the term, it serves as a useful counter to more exclusionary identities. However, this usage is not uncontested: On the one hand, those who grew up in Ethiopia or Eritrea may object to the obscuring of national specificity.

The early Semitic term appears to refer to a group of peoples, rather than a specific ethnicity. The first attestation of late Latin Abissensis is from the fifth century CE.

Modern Western European languages, including English, appear to borrow this term from the post-classical form Abissini in the mid-sixteenth century.

English Abyssin is attested from , and Abissinia and Abyssinia from the s. Abyssinian civilization has its roots in the pre-Aksumite culture.

The Kingdom of Aksum , one of the powerful civilizations of the ancient world, was based there from about BC to the mid of 12th century AD.

Spreading far beyond the city of Aksum, it molded one of the earliest cultures of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Architectural remains include finely carved stelae , extensive palaces, and ancient places of worship that are still being used.

Around the time that the Aksumite empire began to decline, the burgeoning religion of Islam made its first inroads in the Abyssinian highlands.

During the first Hegira , the companions of prophet Muhammad were received in the Aksumite kingdom. The Sultanate of Showa , established around , was one of the oldest local Muslim states.

It was centered in the former Shewa province in central Ethiopia. The polity was succeeded by the Sultanate of Ifat around Ifat was governed from its capital at Zeila in northern Somalia and was the easternmost district of the former Shewa Sultanate.

Throughout history, populations in the Horn of Africa had been interacting through migration, trade, warfare and intermarriage.

Most people in the region spoke Afroasiatic languages , with the family's Cushitic and Semitic branches predominant. They mainly traded with Egypt.

Earlier trade expeditions were taken by foot along the Nile Valley. The ancient Egyptians' main objective in the Red Sea trade was to acquire myrrh.

This was a commodity that the Horn region, which the ancient Egyptians referred to as the Land of Punt , had in abundance. Much of the incense is produced in Somalia to this day.

Very little is known of the time period between the mid-1st millennium BCE to the beginning of Aksum's rise around the 1st century CE.

Axum remained its capital until the 7th century. The kingdom was favorably located near the Blue Nile basin and the Afar depression.

The former is rich in gold and the latter in salt: both materials having a highly important use to the Aksumites. Aksum was accessible to the port of Adulis , Eritrea on the coast of the Red Sea.

Aksum's "fertile" and "well-watered" location produced enough food for its population. Wild animals included elephants and rhinoceros.

From its capital, Aksum commanded the trade of ivory. It also dominated the trade route in the Red Sea leading to the Gulf of Aden.

Its success depended on resourceful techniques, production of coins, steady migrations of Greco-Roman merchants, and ships landing at Adulis.

In exchange for Aksum's goods, traders bid many kinds of cloth, jewelry, metals and steel for weapons. The South Arabian kingdom of the Himyarites and also a portion of western Saudi Arabia was also under the power of Aksum.

Their descendants include the present-day ethnic groups known as the Amhara, Tigrayans and Gurage peoples. After the fall of Aksum due to declining sea trade from fierce competition by Muslims and changing climate, the power base of the kingdom migrated south and shifted its capital to Kubar near Agew.

They moved southwards because, even though the Axumite Kingdom welcomed and protected the companions of Prophet Muhammad to Ethiopia, who came as refugees to escape the persecution of the ruling families of Mecca and earned the friendship and respect of the Prophet.

Their friendship deteriorated when South-Arabians invaded the Dahlak islands through the port of Adulis and destroyed it, which was the economic backbone for the prosperous Aksumite Kingdom.

Fearing of what recently occurred, Axum shifted its capital near Agew] [ clarification needed ] In the middle of the sixteenth century Adal Sultanate armies led by Harar leader Ahmed Gragn invaded Habesha lands in what is known as the "Conquest of Habasha".

In the late sixteenth century the nomadic Oromo people penetrated the Habesha plains occupying large territories during the Oromo migrations. The Amharas seemed to gain the upper hand with the accession of Yekuno Amlak of Ancient Bete Amhara in , after defeating the Agaw lords of Lasta in those days a non-Semitic-speaking region of Abyssinia.

The Gondarian dynasty, which since the 16th century had become the centre of Royal pomp and ceremony of Abyssinia, finally lost its influence as a result of the emergence of powerful regional lords, following the murder of Iyasu I , also known as Iyasu the Great.

The emperors were considered to be figureheads. Until a young man named Kassa Haile Giorgis also known as Emperor Tewodros brought end to Zemene Mesafint by defeating all his rivals and took the throne in The Tigrayans made only a brief return to the throne in the person of Yohannes IV in , whose death in resulted in the power base shifting back to the dominant Amharic-speaking elite.

League of Nations in reported that after the invasion of Menelik's forces into non Abyssinian lands of Somalis , Harari , Oromo , Sidama , Shanqella etc, the inhabitants were enslaved and heavily taxed by the gebbar system leading to depopulation.

Some scholars consider the Amhara to have been Ethiopia's ruling elite for centuries, represented by the Solomonic line of Emperors ending in Haile Selassie I.

Marcos Lemma and other scholars dispute the accuracy of such a statement, arguing that other ethnic groups have always been active in the country's politics.

This confusion may largely stem from the mislabeling of all Amharic-speakers as "Amhara", and the fact that many people from other ethnic groups have adopted Amharic names.

Another is the claim that most Ethiopians can trace their ancestry to multiple ethnic groups, including the last self-proclaimed emperor Haile Selassie I and his Empress Itege Menen Asfaw of Ambassel.

Solomon is said in this account to have seduced the Queen, and sired a son by her, who would eventually become Menelik I , the first Emperor of Ethiopia.

The tradition that the biblical Queen of Sheba was an ingenuous ruler of Ethiopia who visited King Solomon in Jerusalem is repeated in a 1st-century account by the Roman Jewish historian Josephus.

There is no primary evidence, archaeological or textual, for the queen in Ethiopia. The impressive ruins at Aksum are a thousand years too late for a queen contemporary with Solomon, based on traditional dates for him of the 10th century BC.

In the past, European scholars including Hiob Ludolf and Carlo Conti Rossini postulated that the ancient communities that evolved into the modern Ethiopian state were formed by a migration across the Red Sea of Semitic-speaking South Arabians around BC, who intermarried with local non-Semitic-speaking peoples.

Both the indigenous languages of Southern Arabia and the Amharic and Tigrinya languages of Ethiopia belong to the large branch of South Semitic languages which in turn is part of the Afro-Asiatic Language Family.

Even though the Ethiosemitic languages are classified under the South Semitic languages branch with a Cushitic language substratum, Edward Ullendorff and Carlo Conti Rossini 's theory that Ethioemitic-language speakers of the northern Ethiopian Highlands were ancient foreigners from Southwestern Arabia has been disputed by most modern indigenous Horn African scholars like Messay Kebede and Daniel E.

Alemu generally disagree with this theory arguing that the migration was one of reciprocal exchange, if it even occurred at all. This is not to say that events associated with conquest, conflict and resistance did not occur.

No doubt, they must have been frequent. But the crucial difference lies in the propensity to present them, not as the process by which an alien majority imposed its rule but as part of an ongoing struggle of native forces competing for supremacy in the region.

The elimination of the alien ruler indigenize Ethiopian history in terms of local actors. Scholars have determined that the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia was not derived from an Old South Arabian language such as Sabaean.

Essentially no archaeological evidence supports the story of the Queen of Sheba. In the reign of King Ezana , c.

This is the first known use of this term to describe specifically the region known today as Ethiopia and not Kush or the entire African and Indian region outside of Egypt.

Fleminga Grahamiana. King Ezana's claims to Sahlen Saba and Dhu-Raydan Himyar during a time when such control was unlikely may indicate an Aksumite presence or coastal foothold.

Before the 20th century, the Sabean theory was the most common one explaining the origins of the Habesha. It was first suggested by German orientalist Hiob Ludolf and revived by early 20th-century Italian scholar Conti Rossini.

They said that at an early epoch, South Arabian tribes, including one called the " Habashat," emigrated across the Red Sea from Yemen to Eritrea.

According to this theory, Sabaeans brought with them South Arabian letters and language, which gradually evolved into the Ge'ez language and Ge'ez script.

Linguists have revealed, however, that although its script developed from Epigraphic South Arabian whose oldest inscriptions are found in Yemen, Ethiopia and Eritrea used to write the Old South Arabian languages, Ge'ez is descended from a different branch of Semitic, Ethiosemitic or Ethiopic sub-branch.

The large corpus of South Arabian inscriptions does not mention any migration to the west coast of the Red Sea, nor of a tribe called "Habashat.

Levine has argued that this view "neglects the crucial role of non-Semitic elements in Ethiopian culture. Alemu , and others.

Genetically, culturally, and geographically speaking Habeshas Abyssinian people are traditionally Cushitic Peoples. Ethiopia and Sudan are among the main areas linguists suggest were the Afro-Asiatic Urheimat.

Recent linguistic studies as to the origin of the Ethiosemitic languages seem to support the DNA findings of immigration from the Arabian Peninsula, with a recent study using Bayesian computational phylogenetic techniques finding that "contemporary Ethiosemitic languages of Africa reflect a single introduction of early Ethiosemitic from southern Arabia approximately 2, years ago", and that this single introduction of Ethiosemitic subsequently underwent quick diversification within Ethiopia and Eritrea.

There are many theories regarding the beginning of the Abyssinian civilization. One theory, which is more widely accepted today, locates its origins in the Horn region.

The Habesha developed an agricultural society, which most continue, including raising of camels , donkeys , and sheep.

They plow using oxen. The Orthodox Church is an integral part of the culture. The church buildings are built on hills. Major celebrations during the year are held around the church, where people gather from villages all around to sing, play games, and observe the unique mass of the church.

It includes a procession through the church grounds and environs. Coffee is a very important ceremonial drink. The "coffee ceremony" is common to the Ethiopians and Eritreans.

Beans are roasted on the spot, ground, and brewed, served thick and rich in tiny ceramic cups with no handles. This amount of coffee can be finished in one gulp if drunk cold; but, traditionally it is drunk very slowly as conversation takes place.

When the beans are roasted to smoking, they are passed around the table, where the smoke becomes a blessing on the diners. The traditional food served at these meals consists of injera , a spongy flat bread, served with wat , a spicy meat sauce.

Houses in rural areas are built mostly from rock and dirt, the most available resources, with structure provided by timber poles. The houses blend in easily with the natural surroundings.

Many times the nearest water source is more than a kilometer away from the house. In addition, people must search for fuel for their fires throughout the surrounding area.

The Habesha people have a rich heritage of music and dance, using drums and stringed instruments tuned to a pentatonic scale. Arts and crafts and secular music are performed mostly by artisans, who are regarded with suspicion.

Sacred music is performed and icons are painted only by men trained in monasteries. Abyssinians speak languages belonging to the Ethiopian Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family.

Among these tongues is the classical Ge'ez language. Later, an independent script replaced it as early as the 5th century BCE. Ge'ez literature is considered to begin with the adoption of Christianity in Ethiopia and Eritrea, as well as the civilization of Axum in the 4th century BCE during the reign of Ezana.

Ge'ez language is ancestral to Tigre and Tigrinya languages. Some historians in the past have labelled the Ethiopian Semitic languages as the Abyssinian languages.

Their written accounts about their experiences include observations and descriptions of the Abyssinian customs and manners.

Habesha cuisine characteristically consists of vegetable and often very spicy meat dishes, usually in the form of wat also w'et or wot , a thick stew, served atop injera , a large sourdough flatbread , [48] which is about 50 centimeters 20 inches in diameter and made out of fermented teff flour.

Fit-fit , or fir-fir, is a common breakfast dish. It is made from shredded injera or kitcha stir-fried with spices or wat. Another popular breakfast food is fatira.

The delicacy consists of a large fried pancake made with flour, often with a layer of egg, eaten with honey. Chechebsa or kita firfir resembles a pancake covered with berbere and niter kibbeh , or spices, and may be eaten with a spoon.

A porridge , genfo is another common breakfast dish. It is usually served in a large bowl with a dug-out made in the middle of the genfo and filled with spiced niter kibbeh.

Wat begins with a large amount of chopped red onion , which is simmered or sauteed in a pot. Once the onions have softened, niter kebbeh or, in the case of vegan dishes, vegetable oil is added.

Following this, berbere is added to make a spicy keiy wat or keyyih tsebhi. Turmeric is used instead of bebere for a milder alicha wat or both are omitted when making vegetable stews, atkilt wat.

Another distinctively Habesha dish [ citation needed ] is kitfo frequently spelled ketfo. Gored gored is very similar to kitfo , but uses cubed rather than ground beef.

The habesha kemis is the traditional attire of Habesha women. It is made of chiffon , and typically comes in white, grey or beige shades.

Many women also wrap a shawl called a netela around the formal dress. The netela or netsela is a handmade cloth many Ethiopian women use to cover their head and shoulders when they wear clothing made out of chiffon , especially when attending church.

It is made up of two layers of fabric, unlike gabi , which is made out of four. Kuta is the male version. An Ethiopian or Eritrean suit is the traditional formal wear of Habesha men.

Most shirts are made with a Mandarin, band, or Nehru collar. The suit is made of chiffon, which is a sheer silk or rayon cloth. The netela shawl or a kuta is wrapped around the suit.

The Habesha empire centered in Axum and Adowa was part of the world in which Christianity grew. The arrival of Christianity in Northern Ethiopia and Eritrea happened around the 4th century.

The Aksumites, in fact, had been converted to Christianity hundreds of years before most of Europe.

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